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DEPORTATION

THIS IS BACKGROUND SOURCE MATERIAL ABOUT THE ABANDONMENT OF NORFOLK ISLAND 1807-8.

DEPORTATION

PART WRITTEN:

Edited from: HUNTER, MAUM LETTER, BELBIN archive

[I’ll get round to the attributions – bear with me]

*

The deportation now began in earnest. H.M.S. Porpoise, the armed tender Lady Nelson, and the Estramina were to remove the people and their stock. Governor Bligh gave the settlers their choice between Port Dalrymple and the Derwent. Most of them chose the latter settlement. He then gave Collins notice to be ready to receive 120 settlers and their families, 386 souls in all, and at the same time sent him seven months’ supplies.

The first vessel to arrive (28th November, 1807) was the armed tender Lady Nelson. She was already well known at the Derwent. In 1803 she had brought to Risdon a portion of Bowen’s party, and had assisted at the founding ofHobartby Collins in February, 1804, and she now brought the first detachment of settlers deported from Norfolk Island. They consisted of 15 families, comprising 34 persons.

Three months later (17th January, 1808) came the Porpoise with 43 families, altogether 187 persons, and on the 2nd March the Lady Nelson brought a further installment of 50.

At dawn on Boxing Day 1807 the Porpoise set sail for the next great unknown.

*

On Norfolk Island] most of these settlers were living in a most comfortable manner, possessing without much labour every necessary of life in abundance, and the luxuries, which the island did not afford, was purchased by its produce. Every one of them had some stock, which, on giving up to the Commandant at Norfolk Island, was to be returned in kind at the Derwent

Class system: First, Second, Third

THE PROMISES

427 people  in Hobart Town before the embarkations

First Embarkation leaves Norfolk Island  9th Nov 1807

‘Lady Nelson’

First Embarkation arrives 28th Nov 1807 – 15 men, 6 women and 13 children

Including:

William Hand [47] *

Salisbury 1788 – Neptune 1790 – 7 yrs – 15 acres – 10 ½ / 4 ½ – gets 34 acres

Michael Newhouse [45]

Norwich 1788 – Atlantic 1791 – 7 yrs – ‘having rented land’ – gets 27 acres

William Mince [33] *

  London 1789, he was 14 – Salamander 1791 – 7 yrs – 16 acres – 6/10 – gets 34 acres

Henry Mitchell [48]

York 1787  – Matilda 1791 – 7 yrs – 18 acres cl. – gets 40 acres

and

the first Muslim settlers in Van Diemen’s Land

Antonio Buchari *

crew on the British Indian ship Hunter wrecked at Norfolk Island in 1799 – 10 acres leased – 7 ½ /2 ½ – gets 30 acres

Saib [Jacob] Sultan and ‘wife’ *

Shipwreck 1795 ends up on Norfolk– 11 ½ acres – 10 ½ /½ – gets 27 acres

All class 3 settlers

billeted in Hobart Town

‘they appeared to be very necessitous, applying immediately to me for Clothing and Bedding, which, unfortunately, I had not to give them. I found they were prepossessed with an Idea that all their Wants could be supplied at this Settlement; and as it was my wish if possible not to increase the Discontent which this disappointment of their hopes created, I indulged them, particularly those who had families, in chusing their Farms in the Vicinity of the Settlement, and giving hem such Assistance in building their Houses as my scanty means would permit.

Collins to Viscount Castlereagh 20th April 1808

Christmas Day 1807 the second embarkation leaves Norfolk Island on the Porpoise

Details of the voyage in Maum letter: We arrived here in safety after a most favorable passage of Nineteen days. We encountered no Storms, and the sea was so smooth that an open boat might safely come the same voyage…

MAUM’S LETTER

Only one document remains that describes the Porpoise’s trip to Van Diemen’s Land. This is a letter full of good advice written by William Maum to his friend Robert Nash, still back on Norfolk Island, most of which must have been relayed to the other settlers.

‘We arrived here in safety after a most favorable passage of nineteen days,’ begins Maum, ‘we encountered no storms and the sea was so smooth that an open boat might safely come the same voyage…’

There were 182 people on board, plus the crew. Thirty nine women and 76 children, the rest free settlers or convict men. Maum notes that the calm seas were ‘a happy circumstance, considering the great numbers packed and stowed on board, whose situation would be deplorable had we encountered bad weather.’

As soon as they put to sea every passenger on board, including the stock, was put on water rations and the settlers were classed into Watches. The lack of fresh water caused terrible problems; ‘You can’t conceive the great carnage that has been on board the porpoise in regard to the Stock: Crowder lost 5 sows & 6 sheep, Mitchell 7 sheep & 3 goats and all others in proportion, but what must be your astonishment, when you are informed that I brought my 8 ewes & 3 sows safe, without any loss or detriment…’

Maum’s stock came through unscathed because he was messing with the Officers in the Gunroom and had discovered the universal truth that anything could be bought for a price. ‘A tolerable good Sow’ given to one of the Officer’s ensured the extra water he needed, a fine cabin to boot, and he ‘was treated with more respect than the first rate Settlers – with all their claims & privileges. [the sheep] learn’d to drink from a bottle as expertly as any old dame of Norfolk would imbibe from a similar vessel a much stronger liquor,

‘I assure you,’ he wrote, ‘if you are in the general crowd, your troubles, anxiety and vexation will be great.’

The Porpoise arrived off Van Diemen’s Land around January 10th and anchored in the harbour at Hobart Town on the twentieth anniversary of Jane Tyler’s crime. I wonder if the coincidence occurred to her as she stood on board looking up at the great bulk of Mt.Wellington for the first time. They landed the next day and were billeted amongst the good, and not so good, citizens ofHobart. Two days later they were victualled from the Stores.

The news was not good. In little more than six months Collins had 330 people thrown on his hands with but little means to provide for their wants. Many of them were in a most wretched condition, and immediately applied to Collins for clothing and bedding, which it was not in his power to give them. They had come with the expectation that all their wants would be provided for by the Government. All Collins could do was to billet the majority amongst the inhabitants. Some few he assisted to build houses for themselves. Some few he found sufficiently skilled to be employed at wages on the works he had then in hand, the principal of which was the large brick store which still stands at the bottom ofMacquarie Street.

As provisions will be the staple commodity here. I can’t recommend too strongly your attention to that head; pork now sells here at 2/6 and 3/-, soap 4/-, flour 1/- & potatoes 3d per lb, and every thing else in proportion.

– bring with you as much flour and wheat as possible, and a sufficiency of corn for whatever Stock you may bring down,

– bring down about 12 good young ewes, a greater number on board would be useless, as you could not possibly bring them down, four or five sows in pig (if possible) as there are no boars here

– as much poultry as you can get off; fowls here are of the utmost consequence, their value being beyond money.

– particularly bring down your Mill Stones and your Mill Works, as he will engage to find you a sufficiency of water &c

– bring with you Hoes &c and all other Tools as they are here remarkably scarce,

– you can’t conceive the great trouble that has attended the Receipt of our corn and wheat as Capt Piper’s account was entirely incorrect, as many persons came forward and declared that they had not one half the quantity of grain on board that was specified, for instance in the Norfolk Return, Crowder was set down as having put on board 20 bushels of wheat, and he himself has voluntarily declared that he put on board but six – and many other instances of this kind, which occasion much confusion.

Now attend to my instructions:- put your wheat in casks, and your flour likewise, and on no account allow it to be stated, as if you do, by such errors as I have mentioned, persons who put but a small quantity on board might claim as large a portion as you:

The Gov’r here has it not in his power to fulfill the intentions of Gov’t, as he has neither Tradesmen or Labourers, and nothing in the Stores but provisions, some of which are very bad, particularly the Cape Beef.

On our Arrival here the Settlers and others were billeted on the Inhabitants of this [Hobart] Town which is far larger than you could suppose, the houses in general are of Lath & plaster and immoderately dear; a house equal in size to your workshop of such bad materials would bring here £50. There is a stream of fresh water running almost through this Town, but I have seen no sufficient fall in any part of the neighbourhood; Billy Mitchell tells me he has seen a fall about three Miles from this, but is undeterred about settling there, as he wishes to go with the Norfolk body, and it is said that there is a capital fall of Water at the Plains of Herdsman’s Cove. I can’t give you any positive directions, as I suppose you will on your arrival be the best able to determine for yourself.

We found some of the Lady Nelson passengers settled, they have taken their farms about two and three miles from the Town, and many of those that came with us have settled in this vicinity likewise – but the greater portion and those that arrive next, are to be settled at a place the fertility of which is highly spoken of, named Herdsman’s Cove, about 15 miles from hence, where there are most extensive plains, on the road direct to Port Dalrymple. [The Gov’r] intends going up in a few [days] to form the New Settlement, I shall attend him, and be present at that Ceremony. Your Plough if you settle there will perform much Execution – the last Crop here has been most favorable and I declare to you, I never in my life saw such charming Wheat as what was produced here – the Ear is at least one half longer than those of Norfolk Wheat and amazingly full.

Our friend Hibbins was placed in a Sergt. McCauley’s house, and wishing that his wife should be employed, made up a large fire to boil pots &c, for her to wash with, and absolutely burned down the House valued at nearly £200 – Lt. Gov Collins very much dislikes him, his Cup of Misery is full, and his draughts of it are plentiful The Gov’r could not believe the Reports of his Conduct in respect to Mr. Hibbins, and considered them arising from prejudice, until Hibbins himself absolutely informed him of her baseness and his own infamy – the Gov’r in consequence has ordered him to keep a distance from him.

Poor Hewert [JOHN HERBERT] was as busy on board with his head bare, his Sleeves tucked up, and a frying pan continually in one hand, and a bundle of dirty Cloths in the other always on the bustle jealous of every person that came near Betsy, but unhappily for him, a Quarter master named Summers has supplanted him in her esteem, and she has given the Sailors Hard Biscuit the preference to all his Sweet Cakes and womanlike attentions, and he is now nearly distracted and as such is likely to continue. Crowder appears John’s mend, but he comes on board, and is the advocate for Summers – so much for poor Jack, who would be glad to be back at Norfolk in the Co-partnership of Sparks –

I never thought it worth my while to speak to [JAMES] Davis about his ingratitude, you will do well to keep a distance from him, he endeavored to get a passage to Sydney, but the Gov’r will allow no person from Norfolk to go up there, he [Davis] has drank out the price of his pigs, and will, I think, his Wheat & what little pork he has got.

You can’t conceive the extent to which Robberies are carried here, a great many persons from Norfolk have been robbed and amongst the rest [JOHN] Robley has lost a Cask of pork; being stolen from Mr. Guests’s door. 

*

1808

Second Embarkation arrives 17th Jan. 1808

Families:

James Bryan Cullen [54]

Scarborough[First fleet] – 28 acres – 9/19 ½ – 1 – 1 -3 – Class 2 – 1754 – gets 40 acres

Elizabeth Bartlett

M. Cornwallis

3 BRATS

William Abel

Pitt – No claim but recommended on account of his family – Class 2 – gets 34 acres

Mary Ann Moree

Brittania

3 BRATS

Joshua Peck [52] *

Exetor, Devon 1786 – Charlotte [first fleet] 24 acres – 9 ¼ /15 ¾ 1 – 1 – 6 – Class 3 – 1755 – gets 45 acres

Mary Frost  [47] *

Death – Norwich, Norfolk 1789 – Neptune 1789 – Surprize – married 1791 or 1808 – 1761 –

6 BRATS

Thomas Hibbins *

Came free – 60 acres – 30 ¼/29 ¾  1 – 1 -5 – Class 3 – gets 92 acres

Ann Clark *

[second wife]Fulton

5 BRATS

John Barnes *

Atlantic 1791 – Mary Ann – return Syd 1793, back to N.I. 1796 – 3 acres – Class 3 – gets 36 acres

Martha Edwards [35] *

Hereford 1796 – Britannia 1798 [with son]-  life [m.  Sept. 1801] – 1773

2 BRATS

Anthony Fletcher

No land recorded – Class 3 – Disappears after 1809 – gets 100 acres

Mary

2 BRATS

Thomas Crahan [37]

Dublin1791 – highway robbery – 7 yrs – Boddington 1793 – 1769 – 15 acres – Class 3 – gets 33/30/30

Mary Monks [38]

[2nd wife] Dublin 1793 – Cornwallis 1796 – 1770

5 BRATS

Robert Cox [44]

Salamander? Rear Admiral – 25 acres 21 /l4 – Class 3 – 1763 – gets 48 acres

Ann Power [47]

1760

1 BRAT

Single men:

Ram John Conn *

Came free – Shipwreck 1795 – ends up on Norfolk– 20 acres – separated – 8 ½ /11 ½ – gets 35 acres [50 in 1818]

William Foyle [48] *

Death – Salisbury, Wiltshire 1785 – [first fleet] – Charlotte – 7 yrs – no land recorded – rented? – 1760 – gets 30

Robert Chambers [42]

WestminsterJune 1788 – Barrington1791 – 7 yrs – 16 acres – 13 ½ / 2 ½ – gets 34 acres

William Clark [41] *

Death – Middlesex 1784/7 – Scarborough [first fleet] – 7 yrs – 16 acres – 13 ½ / 2 ½ – gets 34 acres

All class 3 settlers

Childless couples:

Charles Clark [54] *

Middlesex 1785 – Scarborough [first fleet] – 7yrs –  constable – 50 acres – 23 ½ /26 ½ – 1754 – gets 30 acres

Mary Lammerman [42] *

Northumberland 1787 – Lady Juliana – 7 years – married 1791 – dies July 1808

Thomas Murphy [55] *

Death – Gloucester 1786 -Scarborough [second fleet] – life – Surprize – 16 ½ acres Cl – Class 3 – 1753 – gets 42 acres

Mary Cragg [45] *

Yorkshire 1787 – Lady Juliana – 7 yrs – married 31st July 1790 – Surprize – 1763 –

Thomas Francis

Warwick 1795 –Canada 1801 – 7 yrs – 10 acres Cl – Class 3 – gets 50 acres

Honora Collins

M. Cornwallis 1796 – married 3rd July 1801,St John’s

John Berry

Maidstone 1788 – Barrington 1791 – 14 yrs – 10 acres Cl – Class 3 – gets 26 acres

Abigail Cummins

Marquis of Cornwallis 1796 – unmarried

William Dempsey [51]

Came free – marine – Class 1 – 1757 – – 14 acres – 12/2 – employs Fisk cross dresser– gets 35 acres

Jane Tyler [43]*

Death – Middlesex 1787 – refuses – Lady Juliana – life – 1765 – married June 1794 –poss. younger

James Davis [48] *

London1784 – First Fleet – Scarborough 1788– Pitt – 7 yrs – Not holding land – Class 0 – 1760 – gets 22 acres

Martha Burkitt [49] *

London1786 – First fleet – Lady Penrhyn – 1757 – 7 yrs – married 1788

13 women – 18 men + children

Collins to Viscount Castlereagh 20th April 1808 – more info

Billeted in Hobart Town

The Gov’r here has it not in his power to fulfill the intentions of Gov’t, as he has neither Tradesmen or Labourers, and nothing in the Stores but provisions, some of which are very bad, particularly the Cape Beef… etc etc

Maum letter 28th Jan.

List of Delinquents – Berry

Hibbins gets into trouble

Davis goes to drink

Early February First and Second Embarkation settlers arrive in Front River and Falls

News and good advice gets back to Norfolk Island

14th February third embarkation leaves Norfolk Island on ‘Lady Nelson’

1st. March Lady Nelson arrives

Bastian Suez arrives

Robert Jillett arrives

Convict for life, a bad character

April 8th Dennis  McCarty is made Constable

Fourth embarkation leaves Norfolk Island on Estramina

5th June– Fourth Embarkation

Matthew Wood

Rotherham 1788 – Matilda – 7 yrs –no land – Class 3 – gets 30 acres

Catherine Williams / Lewis / Sponsford / Hyland Surrey 1789 – Neptune– 7 yrs – M. Lewis – poss kids – he d. 1792 – M. Sponsford – left him – then Matt. Wood –

Billeted at New Norfolk [?]

It is known that the forced removal of this people from their happy island home and pleasant little homesteads to commence life anew in a land of convicts and savages, was most displeasing to them; and some of them even ventured to resist or rather to evade the Imperial mandate for their expulsion. Of these recusants the only two whose names have reached me are, firstly, the plucky old fellow whom I am writing about [Belbin] and Mr. Robert Nash, who took the bush for it sooner than be evicted from their lands. But according to the practices of the good old times, they were hunted down by the crew of the boat employed to take them on board the vessel, the Estramina, or City of Edinburgh, that was sent thither to remove them, on to the decks of which they were finally pitched like a couple of dogs; and in this manner it was they were embarked on the 3rd of September 1808 reaching Sullivan’s Cove on the 2nd of the following month. Calder 1880

MARY LAMMERMAN [Mrs. CHARLES CLARKE] dies in July – her burial registered at St. David’s on 9th July 1808, age 41 [probably 43]

I’VE FORGOTTEN WHO WROTE THIS

Another three months saw the Estramina arrive with an additional sixty-two settlers.

Thus in little more than six months Collins had had 330 people thrown on his hands with but little means to provide for their wants. Many of them were in a most wretched condition, and immediately applied to Collins for clothing and bedding, which it was not in his power to give them. They came with the expectation that all their wants would be provided for by the Government. All Collins could do was to billet the majority amongst the inhabitants. Some few he assisted to build houses for themselves. Some few he found sufficiently skilled to be employed at wages on the works he had then in hand, the principal of which was the large brick store which still stands at the bottom of Macquarie Street.

Some of the new arrivals received their grants of land in the neighborhood of the settlement at Sandy Bay, but the greater part were fixed some thirty miles up the river, at a new settlement which, in memory of their old home, was called New Norfolk. The sudden accession of over three hundred people to a small community was a great strain on Collins’ resources, His supplies were scanty enough, and when he learned that still more people were coming and that he was to have thrust upon him more than double the number which Bligh had led him to expect, he was loud in his complaints both to the Home Authorities and to Sydney at the want of thought with which he had been treated.

In the meantime a little revolution took place in Sydney. Governor Bligh was deposed by the officers of the New South Wales Corps, and the government was assumed by Colonel Johnston. The work of removal from Norfolk Island was then pushed on even more rapidly. Colonel Johnston charted the City of Edinburgh, a vessel of 500 tons, to remove the rest of the settlers. The deposed Bligh, in his despatches to the Secretary of State, protested strongly against the folly of crowding a host of people into a settlement so ill prepared to receive them, a proceeding which must, he foresaw, involve the whole population at the Derwent in great distress.

The weather during the voyage of City of Edinburgh was said to be inordinately bad, but this hardly explains why the vessel had to lie off Norfolk Island for three months before it was eventually loaded for sailing to the Derwent in September 1808. Some of the Islanders were unwilling to depart Norfolk and perhaps there was some truth in the following statement.

It is known that the forced removal of this people from their happy island home and pleasant little homesteads to commence life anew in a land of convicts and savages, was most displeasing to them; and some of them even ventured to resist or rather to evade the Imperial mandate for their expulsion. Of these recusants the only two whose names have reached me are, firstly, the plucky old fellow whom I am writing about [Belbin] and Mr. Robert Nash, who took the bush for it sooner than be evicted from their lands. But according to the practices of the good old times, they were hunted down by the crew of the boat employed to take them on board the vessel, the Estramina, or City of Edinburgh, that was sent thither to remove them, on to the decks of which they were finally pitched like a couple of dogs; and in this manner it was they were embarked on the 3rd of September 1808 reaching Sullivan’s Cove on the 2nd of the following month. Calder 1880

Already there were loud complaints from the Norfolk Islanders of the hardships they had had to endure, so different from what they had been led to expect from the representations made to them when they left the island. Many of them were in the most destitute condition, and were glad to compound their claims against the Government by taking a few live stock as compensation for the houses and effects they had left. Probably, however, their own improvident habits were their worst enemy. Foveaux states that a ship named the Rose, belonging to Campbells, of Sydney, had touched at the Derwent on her way from England. In direct contravention of his orders from head quarters, Collins allowed the Captain to land several thousand gallons of spirit for sale. He further permitted it to be sold to the new arrivals, who parted with their little store of salted pork to the Government store to raise money to purchase the spirits. Thus, many in a few days dissipated the whole of their small means of subsistence.

*

THE LAST SHUTTLE ARRIVES:

HERE’S A VERY FAMILIAR LIST OF NAMES.

*

5th  EMBARKATION

PEOPLE WHO BOARDED CITY OF EDINBURGH AT NORFOLK ISLAND

3 SEPTEMBER 1808 FOR VAN DIEMENS LAND

39. SAM KING Samuel King.

42. JAMES TRIFFITT [James Triffet]

43. Wife:   MARY HIGGINS Mary Higgins

44. Children:   Thomas Higgins

45.          James Higgins

142. TOMMY GUY Thomas Guy

143. Wife:  ELEANOR WAINWRIGHT Hester Wainwright

144. Children:  MARIANNE McCARTY Ann Wainwright/Guy

145.       Elizabeth Wainwright/Guy

146.       Francis Wainwright/Guy

175. WILL HAZLEWOOD John [William] Hazlewood

176. Child:  MARIA HOPPER Maria Hopper

8. MATTHEW WOOD Matthew Wood

9. Wife:  CATHERINE WILLIAMS Catharine Sponsford/Lewis

THE ROMANCE OF

JANE GORDON & WILL SCATTERGOOD

She has two children: Susan Gordon & Mary

labourer

158. Francis Cox

159. Wife:  Sarah Edge

160. Children:  Francis Edge/Cox

40. Abraham Hands.

41. Cassoway

46. John Whitehouse

121. John Massey

The weather during the voyage of City of Edinburgh was said to be inordinately bad,

The unfortunate people suffered much on the long voyage of nearly a month, and complained that they had been plundered on the way of much of their small property

Arrived off Van Diemen’s Land Sept 28th

EDINBURGH:      29 DAYS

Anchor’d in the Harbour Oct 2

Landed at Hobart Town Oct 3 1808

Victualled from the Stores Oct 5 1808

City of Edinburgh sail’d for Port Jackson Oct 28th

. The unfortunate people suffered much on the long voyage of nearly a month, and complained that they had been plundered on the way of much of their small property. The greater number were in a most destitute state-almost naked-and their arrival necessarily increased the prevailing distress at Hobart. The population of the settlement had been more than doubled by the 554 people who had come from Norfolk Island, and now stood at over 1000. Floods on the Hawkesbury in New South Wales had destroyed nearly the whole crops in March 1808 and the Governor at Port Jackson could spare nothing in response to Collins’ urgent appeals for help.

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